Biodiversity and ecosystem health: a Hawaiian Islands case study | Khan Academy

Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth’s terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health.

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Credits:
“Waves on Kolka beach Latvia” by Wolfgang Saus [Public domain], via Overtone Singing:
https://www.oberton.org/en/sea-noise-public-domain-at-the-beach-of-kolka-latvia-my-contribution-to-the-world-listening-day-2019/

“Koh Mak (island), Thailand, Palms on the beach” by Vyacheslav Argenberg (CC BY 4.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Koh_Mak_(island),_Thailand,_Palms_on_the_beach.jpg

“Scaevola taccada” by Forest & Kim Starr (CC BY 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_041120-1010_Scaevola_taccada.jpg

“White-tailed tropicbird” by Yooshau (CC BY 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White-tailed_tropicbird.jpg

“Hawaiian monk seal at French Frigate Shoals” by Mark Sullivan (CC BY 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hawaiian_monk_seal_at_French_Frigate_Shoals_04.jpg

“Green Sea Turtle” by National Marine Sanctuaries [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Green_Sea_Turtle_(43781715354).jpg

“Partulina variabilis” by Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forest and Wildlife [Public domain], via the State of Hawaiʻi:
https://dlnr.hawaii.gov/ecosystems/sepp/meet-the-snails/partulina/#variabilis

“ʻIʻiwi (Scarlet Honeycreeper) Drepanis coccinea” by Gregory "Slobirdr" Smith (CC BY-SA 2.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I%27iwi_(Scarlet_Honeycreeper)_Drepanis_coccinea_-_Flickr_-_Gregory_%22Slobirdr%22_Smith.jpg

Bird call: “XC503670 · ʻIʻiwi · Drepanis coccinea” by Phoenix Birder (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0):
https://xeno-canto.org/503670

“ʻIʻiwi in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaii” by Alan Schmierer/USFWS [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Natdiglib_28872_full.jpg

“Lobelia grayana (Lobelia)” by Forest & Kim Starr (CC BY 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr-100908-4167-Lobelia_grayana-flowers-Bird_Loop_Waikamoi-Maui_(25025437326).jpg

“Lehua, flower of ʻōhiʻa lehua” by Thomas Tunsch (CC BY-SA 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lehua,_flower_of_%CA%BB%C5%8Dhi%CA%BBa_lehua_(a0004988)_-_panoramio.jpg

“'I'iwi - Vestiaria coccinea” by U.S. Fishand Wildlife Service [Public domain], via Flickr:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwspacific/37139615402/in/photostream/

“Metrosideros polymorpha (Ohia, lehua, ohia lehua)” by Forest & Kim Starr (CC BY 3.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr-180620-4123-Metrosideros_polymorpha-tiny_seedling_on_rock-Kahikinui-Maui_(43447069502).jpg

“I'iwi Drinks Nectar from Māmane Tree” by National Park Service [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I%27iwi_Drinks_Nectar_from_M%C4%81mane_Tree_(9321f296-fae6-4f56-823c-0500a8c3b36a).jpg

“Akialoa lanaiensis” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Akialoa_lanaiensis.jpg

“Black Mamo (Drepanis funera)” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drepanis_funerea-Keulemans.jpg

“Himatione fraithii” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Himatione_fraithii.jpg

“Oahu Akepa” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oahu_Akepa.jpg

“Paroreomyza flammea” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paroreomyza.flammea.jpg

“Paroreomyza montana montana” by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paroreomyza_montana_montana.jpg

“Branta sandvicensis” by Brenda Zaun/USFWS [Public domain], via Wikimedia:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Branta_sandvicensis_-Kilauea_Point_National_Wildlife_Refuge,_Hawaii,_USA-8.jpg

“Nene (Hawaiian Goose) and Goslings” by Mike’s Birds (CC BY-SA 2.0):
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nene_(Hawaiian_Goose)_and_Goslings_(12045247256).jpg